Behaviour Management
Source: Endelman, R. (2011).
Negative Reinforcement for Positive Reinforcement:

Negative reinforcement involves a choice for students without really being a choice, in the sense that they either do what is asked of them or a punishment follows.  Negative reinforcement instils fear, exclusion, unfolds negative emotions, creates distance between relationships and can create low self-esteem in individuals.  How are these situations going to help your classroom behaviour management?

Positive Reinforcement means a reward immediately follows the behaviour.  This reward process strengthens students approach to sustaining positive behaviour, thus creating a positive classroom environment for all.  Positive reinforcement instils maturity, high self-esteem, inclusion, positive attitude, encouraging toward learning and peers and reactive to what you as an educator are trying to achieve.  How are these situations going to influence classroom dynamic?

Clearly you will be faced with unruly students from time to time, where positive reinforcement may not be effective until a positive and trusting relationship is established between teacher and student.  This is where positive reinforcement as opposed to negative reinforcement becomes most affective.  Reward their positive behaviour and encourage positive change after negative behaviour.  Suppose a student continues to call out in class and talk continuously throughout the lesson to peers.  Ask them what the rule is on appropriate communication in class.  When they explain this rule ask them what their current actions are causing within the classroom environment.   How would they feel if others interrupted them this way?  Can you rise to the challenge of focusing on learning today and respecting others? More often than not students will adjust their attitude.  First of all they were spoken to like an adult and secondly they weren’t yelled at in front of the class damaging their self-esteem.  Following this lesson, a meeting between student and teacher may be appropriate in relation to building on teacher/student trust and relationship. It may be necessary to try and understand why the student was acting out in the first place?   Suggest ways to help them based on their problem.  It may even be that the student was not interested in the way the lesson was designed in which case, you as the teacher can now consider this in your lesson reflection and future lesson plans.

Theorist Dr. Bill Rogers suggests replacing negative rules with positive rules.  For example instead of “Don’t call out in class” use “We raise our hand to ask questions in class”.  This
concept continues to establish a positive environment within the classroom setting and encourages the children to view the rules with a positive attitude.

Dreikur’s Theory supports this concept of ‘Swap It, Don't Stop It’ through his ‘logical consequence’ process.  While this is a 20th Century theory, it stands to reason that this concept can be effectively applied today.  It encourages delving into the students reasons for misbehaviour and addresses meaning and purpose in the disciplinary action applied.  Any behaviour comes with reasoning.   While students may not understand their reasoning on occasions, addressing their current position can often open up reasoning and assist educators to understand and resolve the primary problem.  In turn a solution can be created and students can move forward in a positive form.

Positive Attitudes = Positive Behaviour

The concept 'swap it, don't stop it' will bring a more supportive role to teachers in schools rather than a dictator role.  When students feel heard and respected they are more likely to reciprocate.  Students engage more when they are included and learning in a calming environment.  Students kept busy and given variety in learning have less time to think of ways to disrupt the class.  Catering for diverse learning styles (ie. fast finisher sheets and alternative learning sheets for those who struggle in mainstream), ensures all students an opportunity to learn and feel included.  Routines also diminish disruption as students learn from routine.